There are many medical institutes and schools in Russia. Medical institutes train doctors of different specialties: therapeutists, neurologists, surgeons, oculists, dentists, psychiatrists, urologists, ophthalmotologists, dermatologists, anesthesiologists, orthopedists, pharmacologists, otolaryngologists, endocrinologists, traumatologists, cardiologists, oncologists, obstetricians, gynecologists.
In all Russian medical institutes training takes six years. For the first two years students go through the so-called “preclinical” training which includes such as anatomy, chemistry and biochemistry. The students also take a course in general biology, human anatomy, histology, physiology, certain social science subjects and philosophy. Clinical subjects are taught from the third to the fifth year inclusive. They are surgery, therapy, obstetrics, gynecology, internal diseases, children diseases, proctology, etc.
At the end of the third year students have a six week practical course. They perform the duties of nurses. After the fourth year they have an eight week practical course during which they act as doctors’ assistants.
After the 5-th year they take a six week practical course in an out-patient clinic. In the 6-th year the students are given primary practical training in three main clinical subjects: internal diseases, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, working at clinics as doctors’ assistants. After the 6-th year they pass State examinations and receive their diploma and go through the State Distribution Commission.
After distribution it is obligatory for all doctors who will be working in clinical specialties to spend a year as interns. They work under the direct supervision of experienced specialists in clinics. In a year they receive a certificate of specialization. The graduates of medical institutes can apply for clinical internship, they spend two years in clinical specialization and receive a certificate of a specialized doctor – therapeutist, surgeon, obstetrician, otolaryngologist, etc.
The post-graduate course trains not only doctors, but also researches and lecturers.
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